Schools systems are being held more accountable than ever before. As a result, intense pressure is placed on those who make, implement and interpret policy
at all levels of these systems. The politicians and civil servants in national ministries are under pressure, because of international assessments such as PISA,
and feel the need to make sure that schools are held accountable for students' learning and achievement.
Those at regional and the middle levels of national education systems experience the pressures of being held to account and being responsible
for the success of their schools. School leaders, teachers and other staff - as well as students and parents - feel the force of national and regional
expectations and interpret policy on the ground, translating it into everyday practice.